Sushrutha was a pupil of Dhanwantri who is seen as the epitome of ayurvedic teaching and practice. Sushrutha samhita is a collection of their works and findings about Ayurveda. This work earned him the title of “Father of surgery”. Nagarjuna later on revised this collection and added a supplement called Uttara Tantra. In his work he has classified the entire surgeries into various kinds. He also classified the surgical instruments into 21 sharp and 101 blunt instruments. Sushrutha samhita is assumed to be written after Charaka samhitha according to Dr.Hoele who was the editor of Bower Manuscript.
The six main classifications of Susruta samhita are:
- Sutra sthana
- Sarira sthana
- Nidana sthana
- Chikitsa sthana
- Uttara sthana
- Kalpa sthana
The contribution of susrutha samhitha is most valuable in the following fileds:
- Human dissection: Susruta is considered as the first medical practitioner who has bought human dissection into reality. His description on human parts like skin, bones, muscles, blood, etc reflects the fact the intensity of surgical knowledge during that era.
- Techniques of surgery and various procedures: Susruta briefs on the various practices of surgery which are very similar to the modern practices used nowadays. He was the first to implement experimental surgeries during that time.
- Removal of foreign bodies and surgery in battle field. Foreign body removal and battle field surgery included the surgeries to evacuate the presence of germs and other foreign bodies that might have entered the human body during a battle or accident.
- Reconstructive surgery included aesthetic plastic surgeries like otoplasty, rhinoplasty, oroplasty, etc.
- Classification and evolution of human diseases: The mostly common diseases were classified according to the doshas of vatha, pitta and kapha. There were strict diet and surgical options for each disease according to the patient body type and nature.
- Special surgeries for the treatment of fistula, fractures and eye diseases were done.
- Kshar sutra: Kshar sutra surgical procedure is most safe and effective treatment for variety of ano-rectal diseases like fissures, piles, fistula, rectal polyp, etc. Kshar means ayurvedic medicine in alkaline form. Sutra means thread. It’s a thread that is medicated using 21 different coatings of herbal medicines. Kshar is obtained by burning certain herbal medicine and its an alkaline form. Its mixed along with haridra (turmeric) powder and guggulu (Commiphora mukul) to obtain the final mixture. Both the mechanical and medical actions of the thread and medicines are effective in treatment of the ano-rectal wounds. They also act as fibrotic and antiseptic agents to promote healing.
Benefits of Ksharsutra:
- No hospitalization required.
- Only local anesthesia is required.
- Daily routine can be resumed from day 2 onwards.
Ingredients of the herbal medicine are apamarga kshara, haridra powder and snuhi latex. Kshar sutra hence delivers the medicine through the whole of fistulous tract. The tissues are debridged and cut after the healing. It selectively treats the pus pockets and acts on the damaged and unhealthy tissues. It’s found to be very effective in the excision, draining of pus, scrapping, sclerosing and healing. It’s also bacteriostatic and bactericidal.